[143] The impacts of the depleted ozone layer on climate changes occurring in Antarctica are not well understood. Due their concentration mostly in riverine locations, Tagologs historically have been involved in fishing, agriculture and sometimes craft. Exploitation of all mineral resources is banned until 2048 by the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. The main mineral resource known on the continent is coal. This hole covers almost the whole continent and was at its largest in September 2008, when the longest lasting hole on record remained until the end of December. English. Fun Facts about the name Antarctic. Many Filipino words are borrowed from Spanish, and if you speak Spanish then you might understand what the slang words wafu and wafa mean. Popular Tagalog Dictionary. Ibig ipakahulugan ng matalinghagang salita: Ang tren ay parang alupihan. Antarctica is a de facto condominium, governed by parties to the Antarctic Treaty System that have consulting status. There are a number of rivers and lakes in Antarctica, the longest river being the Onyx. The ozone hole is attributed to the emission of chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs into the atmosphere, which decompose the ozone into other gases. Africa separated from Antarctica in the Jurassic, around 160 Ma, followed by the Indian subcontinent in the early Cretaceous (about 125 Ma). It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. Weird things about the name Antarctica: The name spelled backwards is … These are floating extensions of outflowing glaciers from the continental ice mass. Currently, the Polar Geospatial Center can image all of Antarctica at 500 mm (20 in) resolution every 45 days. Instead the recent increases in glacier outflow are believed to be due to an inflow of warm water from the deep ocean, just off the continental shelf. [40] The first women to set foot on Antarctica did so in the 1930s with Caroline Mikkelsen landing on an island of Antarctica in 1935,[41] and Ingrid Christensen stepping onto the mainland in 1937. The areas shown as Australia's and New Zealand's claims were British territory until they were handed over following the countries' independence. [141], Since the 1970s an important focus of study has been the ozone layer in the atmosphere above Antarctica. [91], The terrestrial and native all year round species appears to be the descendants of ancestors who lived in geothermally warmed environments during the last ice age, when these areas were the only places on the continent not covered by ice. It was eventually determined that the destruction of the ozone was caused by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) emitted by human products. Over time, Gondwana gradually broke apart, and Antarctica as we know it today was formed around 25 million years ago. [109][110], Several countries claim sovereignty in certain regions. [171] Between 28 February and 8 March 2008, about 570 km2 (220 sq mi) of ice from the Wilkins Ice Shelf on the southwest part of the peninsula collapsed, putting the remaining 15,000 km2 (5,800 sq mi) of the ice shelf at risk. [98], A census of sea life carried out during the International Polar Year and which involved some 500 researchers was released in 2010. [120][121] The Madrid Protocol bans all mining in Antarctica, designating Antarctica a "natural reserve devoted to peace and science". Since the early 2000s, stories have circulated of a creature supposedly sighted by Japanese researchers in the Antarctic. [92], Few terrestrial vertebrates live in Antarctica, and those that do are limited to the sub-Antarctic islands. [114] A coalition of international organisations[115] launched a public pressure campaign to prevent any minerals development in the region, led largely by Greenpeace International,[116] which operated its own scientific station—World Park Base—in the Ross Sea region from 1987 until 1991[117] and conducted annual expeditions to document environmental effects of humans on Antarctica. Over time these swamps became deposits of coal in the Transantarctic Mountains. Geologically, West Antarctica closely resembles the Andes mountain range of South America. While a few of these countries have mutually recognised each other's claims,[111] the validity of these claims is not recognised universally.[1]. An expedition led by Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen from the ship Fram became the first to reach the geographic South Pole on 14 December 1911, using a route from the Bay of Whales and up the Axel Heiberg Glacier. [14], The long-imagined (but undiscovered) south polar continent was originally called Terra Australis, sometimes shortened to Australia as seen in a woodcut illustration titled "Sphere of the winds", contained in an astrological textbook published in Frankfurt in 1545. The continent, however, remained largely neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of easily accessible resources, and isolation. The name Antarctica is the romanised version of the Greek compound word ἀνταρκτική (antarktiké), feminine of ἀνταρκτικός (antarktikós),[9] meaning "opposite to the Arctic", "opposite to the north". Offshore, temperatures are also low enough that ice is formed from seawater through most of the year. During the whaling era, which lasted until 1966, the population of that island varied from over 1,000 in the summer (over 2,000 in some years) to some 200 in the winter. tl Hinggil sa pangkapaligirang pangamba sa Antarctica, nag-ulat ang pahayagang The Canberra Times: “Ipinakikita ng pagsasaliksik ng mga siyentipiko sa Palmer Station, isang himpilan ng Estados Unidos ukol sa siyensiya sa Anvers Island, na pinipinsala ng malakas na radyasyong ultraviolet ang nakabababang anyo ng buhay gaya ng mga … Antarctica (/ænˈtɑːrtɪkə/ or /æntˈɑːrktɪkə/ (listen))[note 1] is Earth's southernmost continent. Ang Karagatanan o Oseaniya (Ingles: Oceania) ay ang pangalan na ginagamit sa heograpiya para sa rehiyon na binubuo ng Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, at iba pang mga islang bansa na paloob dito.Ang ibang tao ay tinatawag ang bahaging ito ng mundo bilang Australasia. Each year, scientists from 28 different nations conduct experiments not reproducible in any other place in the world. Organisms native to Antarctica include many types of algae, bacteria, fungi, plants, protista, and certain animals, such as mites, nematodes, penguins, seals and tardigrades. Antarctic fisheries in 2000–01 reported landing 112,934 tonnes. During the Eocene–Oligocene extinction event about 34 million years ago, CO2 levels have been found to be about 760 ppm[67] and had been decreasing from earlier levels in the thousands of ppm. Because meteorites in space absorb and record cosmic radiation, the time elapsed since the meteorite hit the Earth can be determined from laboratory studies. The frozen surface of the lake shares similarities with Jupiter's moon Europa. Belgian polar explorer Alain Hubert stated: "This base will be the first of its kind to produce zero emissions, making it a unique model of how energy should be used in the Antarctic." What does batang mean in Filipino? Concerns have been raised that disruption of ice shelves may result in increased glacial outflow from the continental ice mass.[153]. [132], Small-scale "expedition tourism" has existed since 1957 and is currently subject to Antarctic Treaty and Environmental Protocol provisions, but in effect self-regulated by the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO). Another word for Opposite of Meaning of Rhymes with Sentences with Find word forms Translate from English Translate to English Words With Friends Scrabble Crossword / Codeword Words starting with Words ending with Words containing exactly Words containing letters Pronounce Find conjugations Find names Found 72 sentences matching phrase "antarctic".Found in 5 ms. [100][106], Seven hundred species of algae exist, most of which are phytoplankton. [162][164], Some of Antarctica has been warming up; particularly strong warming has been noted on the Antarctic Peninsula. There are only about 4.000 people working in Antarctica during the summer and around 1.000 during winter. More surprising are small forms of life such as sea cucumbers and free-swimming snails found in both polar oceans. Sheperd et al. [82][83], The first semi-permanent inhabitants of regions near Antarctica (areas situated south of the Antarctic Convergence) were British and American sealers who used to spend a year or more on South Georgia, from 1786 onward. The Flag of the Philippines was adopted in 1898. [157], A single 2015 study by H. Jay Zwally et al. Catapult definition is - an ancient military device for hurling missiles. [20], European maps continued to show this hypothetical land until Captain James Cook's ships, HMS Resolution and Adventure, crossed the Antarctic Circle on 17 January 1773, in December 1773 and again in January 1774. Around 23 Ma, the Drake Passage opened between Antarctica and South America, resulting in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that completely isolated the continent. This study also noted that West Antarctica has warmed by more than 0.1 °C (0.2 °F) per decade in the last 50 years, and this warming is strongest in winter and spring. This cooling has the effect of intensifying the westerly winds which flow around the continent (the polar vortex) and thus prevents outflow of the cold air near the South Pole. [127][128], There is no economic activity in Antarctica at present, except for fishing off the coast and small-scale tourism, both based outside Antarctica. [168][169] The net contribution to sea level from the Antarctic Peninsula is more likely to be a direct result of the much greater atmospheric warming there. West Antarctica is covered by the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Heavy snowfalls are common on the coastal portion of the continent, where snowfalls of up to 1.22 metres (48 in) in 48 hours have been recorded. [112] Antarctica's status is regulated by the 1959 Antarctic Treaty and other related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System. Antarctica was not quite the way she had imagined it, Joselén says, smiling. The proportion of the Philippines flag is 1:2. West Antarctica was partially in the Northern Hemisphere, and during this period large amounts of sandstones, limestones and shales were deposited. The Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting is advised on environmental and conservation issues in Antarctica by the Committee for Environmental Protection. Douglas Mawson, who assumed the leadership of the Magnetic Pole party on their perilous return, went on to lead several expeditions until retiring in 1931. Sea ice extent expands annually in the Antarctic winter and most of this ice melts in the summer. Plus discover thousands of other boy and girl baby names. In 1985, three British scientists working on data they had gathered at Halley Station on the Brunt Ice Shelf discovered the existence of a hole in this layer. [167] The amount of surface warming in West Antarctica, while large, has not led to appreciable melting at the surface, and is not directly affecting the West Antarctic Ice Sheet's contribution to sea level. [84], The first child born in the southern polar region was Norwegian girl Solveig Gunbjørg Jacobsen, born in Grytviken on 8 October 1913, and her birth was registered by the resident British Magistrate of South Georgia. [148], This large collection of meteorites allows a better understanding of the abundance of meteorite types in the solar system and how meteorites relate to asteroids and comets. [182], Some scientific studies suggest that ozone depletion may have a dominant role in governing climatic change in Antarctica (and a wider area of the Southern Hemisphere). Robertson Land, Wilkes Land, and Victoria Land. Bituin – a unique Filipino baby girl name meaning “star. [69], Fossil Nothofagus leaves in the Meyer Desert Formation of the Sirius Group show that intermittent warm periods allowed Nothofagus shrubs to cling to the Dominion Range as late as 3–4 Ma (mid-late Pliocene). In West Antarctica, coniferous forests dominated through the entire Cretaceous period (146–66 Ma), though southern beech became more prominent towards the end of this period. [52] In most of the interior of the continent, precipitation is very low, down to 20 mm (0.8 in) per year; in a few "blue ice" areas precipitation is lower than mass loss by sublimation, and so the local mass balance is negative. The First Russian Antarctic Expedition led by Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on the 985-ton sloop-of-war Vostok ("East") and the 530-ton support vessel Mirny ("Peaceful") reached a point within 32 km (20 mi) of Queen Maud's Land and recorded the sight of an ice shelf at .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}69°21′28″S 2°14′50″W / 69.35778°S 2.24722°W / -69.35778; -2.24722,[29] on 27 January 1820,[30] which became known as the Fimbul ice shelf. Lake Vostok, discovered beneath Russia's Vostok Station in 1996, is the largest of these subglacial lakes. Ammonites were common in the seas around Antarctica, and dinosaurs were also present, though only three Antarctic dinosaur genera (Cryolophosaurus and Glacialisaurus, from the Hanson Formation,[63] and Antarctopelta) have been described to date. This sediment uplift was accompanied by igneous intrusions and volcanism. During the Nimrod Expedition led by Ernest Shackleton in 1907, parties led by Edgeworth David became the first to climb Mount Erebus and to reach the South Magnetic Pole. On 18 December 2012, the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office named a previously unnamed area Queen Elizabeth Land in tribute to Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. At 0.00008 people per square kilometre, it is by far the least densely populated continent. The flightless midge Belgica antarctica, up to 6 mm (1⁄4 in) in size, is the largest purely terrestrial animal in Antarctica. [100][101] Some of these species are cryptoendoliths as a result of evolution under extreme conditions, and have significantly contributed to shaping the impressive rock formations of the McMurdo Dry Valleys and surrounding mountain ridges. By almost any definition, Antarctica is by far the most pristine and least polluted continent on the planet. [57][58] On 7 February 2008, a NASA team embarked on a mission to Lake Untersee, searching for extremophiles in its highly alkaline waters. Antarctic sea life includes penguins, blue whales, orcas, colossal squids and fur seals. Antarctica, the world’s southernmost continent, is almost wholly covered by an ice sheet and is about 5.5 million square miles (14.2 million square km) in size. By the start of the Devonian period (416 Ma), Gondwana was in more southern latitudes and the climate was cooler, though fossils of land plants are known from this time. 2012, found that different satellite methods for measuring ice mass and change were in good agreement and combining methods leads to more certainty with East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula changing in mass by +14 ± 43, −65 ± 26, and −20 ± 14 gigatonnes (Gt) per year. Gayon man, isang mapa ni Admiral Piri Reis noong 1513 ang naglalaman ng isang katimugang kontinente na mayroong posibleng pagkahawig sa pampang ng Antarctica. The first meteorite was found in 1912 and named the Adelie Land meteorite. Synonym Discussion of expedition. Antarctica covers more than 14 million km2 (5,400,000 sq mi),[1] making it the fifth-largest continent, about 1.3 times as large as Europe. The cooling of Antarctica occurred stepwise, as the continental spread changed the oceanic currents from longitudinal equator-to-pole temperature-equalising currents to latitudinal currents that preserved and accentuated latitude temperature differences. Some environmentalists and scientists have made a call for stricter regulations for ships and a tourism quota. [86] He was born in 1978 at Esperanza Base, on the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula;[87][88] his parents were sent there along with seven other families by the Argentine government to determine if the continent was suitable for family life. Those features can also be observed in algae and cyanobacteria, suggesting that these are adaptations to the conditions prevailing in Antarctica. There is also evidence of volcanic activity, even after the ice sheet had formed, in Marie Byrd Land and Alexander Island. He is credited with implementing mechanised land transport on the continent and conducting extensive geological and biological research. [149], In January 2013, an 18 kg (40 lb) meteorite was discovered frozen in ice on the Nansen ice field by a Search for Antarctic Meteorites, Belgian Approach (SAMBA) mission.[150]. Instead of inventing a new name to replace it, they took the name Australia from the south polar continent, leaving it nameless for some eighty years. Recent decades have witnessed several dramatic collapses of large ice shelves around the coast of Antarctica, especially along the Antarctic Peninsula. The used colors in the flag are blue, red, yellow, white. Many of the stations are staffed year-round, the winter-over personnel typically arriving from their home countries for a one-year assignment. He sailed along a huge wall of ice that was later named the Ross Ice Shelf. Sa lawak na 13,200,000 km², panglimang pinakamalaking kontinente ang Antarctica, pagkatapos ng Eurasya, Aprika, Hilagang Amerika, at Timog Amerika. A study by Eric Steig published in 2009 noted for the first time that the continent-wide average surface temperature trend of Antarctica is slightly positive at >0.05 °C (0.09 °F) per decade from 1957 to 2006. Ongoing experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists from many nations. Explorer Matthew Flinders, in particular, has been credited with popularising the transfer of the name Terra Australis to Australia. The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), a treaty that came into force in 1980, requires that regulations managing all Southern Ocean fisheries consider potential effects on the entire Antarctic ecosystem. Well, for one thing, it is all about their culture. Antarctic sightseeing flights (which did not land) operated out of Australia and New Zealand until the fatal crash of Air New Zealand Flight 901 in 1979 on Mount Erebus, which killed all 257 aboard. Large animals such as some cetaceans and birds make the round trip annually. If life is discovered in Lake Vostok, it would strengthen the argument for the possibility of life on Europa. As a result, the diversity of plant life is very low and limited in distribution. In January 2015, reports emerged of a 2-kilometre (1.2 mi) circular structure, supposedly a meteorite crater, on the surface snow of King Baudouin Ice Shelf. Out of 6,028,151 records in the U.S. Social Security Administration public data, the first name Antarctic was not present. Painting of James Weddell's second expedition in 1823, depicting the brig Jane and the cutter Beaufoy, Nimrod Expedition South Pole Party (left to right): Wild, Shackleton, Marshall and Adams, Explorer James Clark Ross passed through what is now known as the Ross Sea and discovered Ross Island (both of which were named after him) in 1841. Multicoloured snow algae and diatoms are especially abundant in the coastal regions during the summer. Temperatures reach a minimum of between −80 °C (−112 °F) and −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) in the interior in winter and reach a maximum of between 5 °C (41 °F) and 15 °C (59 °F) near the coast in summer. All but a small portion of this region lies within the Eastern Hemisphere. Antarctic krill, which congregate in large schools, is the keystone species of the ecosystem of the Southern Ocean, and is an important food organism for whales, seals, leopard seals, fur seals, squid, icefish, penguins, albatrosses and many other birds. During the Permian period, the land became dominated by seed plants such as Glossopteris, a pteridosperm which grew in swamps. [16] Eventually Antarctica was adopted as the continental name in the 1890s—the first use of the name is attributed to the Scottish cartographer John George Bartholomew. It is divided into East Antarctica (largely composed of a high ice-covered plateau) and West Antarctica (an archipelago of ice-covered mountainous islands). The most valuable resources of Antarctica lie offshore, namely the oil and natural gas fields found in the Ross Sea in 1973. [47], In the southern hemisphere summer of 1996–97 the Norwegian explorer Børge Ousland became the first human to cross Antarctica alone from coast to coast. sabbatical definition: 1. a period of time when college or university teachers are allowed to stop their usual work in…. The root word tala-means a list or a record. [183], Coordinates: 90°S 0°E / 90°S 0°E / -90; 0, This article is about the continent. With the ban of CFCs in the Montreal Protocol of 1989, climate projections indicate that the ozone layer will return to 1980 levels between 2050 and 2070. Another well-known volcano is found on Deception Island, which is famous for a giant eruption in 1970. Towards the end of the Permian period, continued warming led to a dry, hot climate over much of Gondwana.[62]. ( CRAMRA ) was adopted 70 % of the Station design team and manager of Weddell!, increased ice outflow has been suggested in some regions 2048 by the West Antarctic ice to understand the types! In the summer extremely cold, dry, and probably Mars, by impacts into other gases nations... Adelie Land meteorite funded research teams depending on the left ) reported landing 119,898 tonnes legally years seemingly! Central West Antarctica is the risk to Antarctica from Australia in the summer than! Southern Ocean, containing the South Pole, Antarctica receives relatively little solar except! 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